Der Landtag Nordrhein-Westfalen ist das Landesparlament des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen und hat seinen Sitz im Regierungsviertel der Landeshauptstadt. Als das kriegszerstörte Düsseldorf zur Landeshauptstadt wurde, war guter Rat teuer: Wo sollte der Landtag tagen? Zunächst entschied man sich für das. Logo der CDU-Landtagsfraktion Nordrhein-Westfalen.
Debatte um Bildung in Corona-ZeitenDer Landtag Nordrhein-Westfalen ist das Landesparlament des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen und hat seinen Sitz im Regierungsviertel der Landeshauptstadt. Als das kriegszerstörte Düsseldorf zur Landeshauptstadt wurde, war guter Rat teuer: Wo sollte der Landtag tagen? Zunächst entschied man sich für das. Der Landtag Nordrhein-Westfalen ist die Versammlung der Abgeordneten, die Die wichtigsten Aufgaben des Landtages sind: die Gesetzgebung, die Wahl.
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Occasionally the governing coalition is a minority government. The Minister-President, in most cases, puts the government together with people from the coalition parties.
In practice, the election of a Minister-President leads to a stable government with a clear majority that can exert considerable influence over the legislative process and thus pursue its own legislative agenda.
Though the electorate does not vote directly for the Minister-President, the selected person is generally a dominant figure in the state political system, and since the larger parties declare their lead candidate before the election, voting for a particular party means voting in favor of having that lead candidate be in the running for President-Minister.
The lead candidate for smaller coalition parties are regularly included in the government as ministers. Compared to the state government, the state parliament has extensive powers.
It can call members of government in for questioning before parliament, and it has the power to approve the state budget proposed by the government.
Parliament also votes on closed states contracts. And, as mentioned above, parliament has the power to dissolve the government through a motion of no confidence.
The Court of Audit controls the use of state funds by all state governmental bodies. Parliament elects four members of the Constitutional Court for the State of North Rhine-Westphalia Verfassungsgerichtshof für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen to terms of six years each.
Altogether this court has seven members. The long term of office, which is staggered so that each judge will not face reelection at the same time, ensures that parliament cannot place undue pressure on the court through election manipulation.
This is meant to strengthen the independence of the judges on the court. The number of representatives of each party present in the Federal Convention is dependent on how many representatives belonging to that party are in the state parliament.
Based on population statistics, North Rhine-Westphalia is responsible for about a fifth of the members of the Federal Convention. Roughly half of these individuals are, by virtue of their membership in the federal parliament Bundestag Germany , already members of the Federal Convention.
The state parliament fills all those seats designated to the state that remain. The majority of work by the parliament takes place in committees, rather than in plenary sessions which include all parliament members.
In general, members of the state parliament are career politicians and sit together according to what party they belong to. At the beginning of each legislative period, parliament members elect a Präsidium , which is headed by the President of the Parliament distinct from the Minister-President , and a Council of Elders Ältestenrat , which is essentially a board to help with managerial issues.
It is also during this period that committee seats are filled. The Präsidium is headed by the President of the Parliament Landtagspräsident , who is chosen from among the ranks of parliament.
In general, the President of the Parliament comes from the largest constituent political party in the government. The following individuals have been Parliament President:.
The Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia is elected by a system of personalized proportional representation.
Parliament members are selected by a universal , equal, direct, secret, and free vote. Parliament has at least members. Additionally, the inclusion of overhang seats and leveling seats is possible.
The remaining seats are allocated to candidates who appear on party lists. Each voter has two votes. The first vote is cast directly for a candidate to represent a specific district.
The second vote is for a party and largely determines the relative size of each party's bloc in the new parliament. All Germans who have reached the age of 18, who live in North Rhine-Westphalia at least 16 days before the election, and who are not excluded from voting due to court decision are eligible to vote in the state parliamentary elections.
If they have moved to the state between closing of the electoral rolls 35 days before the election and the eligibility cut-off 16 days before the election, they need to assert their right to vote by appealing to the voter registry in their new community.
Those who wish to stand for office must be a registered resident of North Rhine-Westphalia for at least three months prior to the election.
The state has 17,, residents as of 31 December ,  of which about The state is divided into electoral districts of approximately equal population.
Each electoral district is calculated to contain roughly , residents. In practice, each political district of the state somewhat similar to county is broken up into several overlapping electoral districts with the exception of the district of Höxter and the district of Olpe.
The division of the state into electoral districts is only relevant to the direct election of candidates with the first vote as opposed to the second vote, which is specifically for party lists.
Nominations for the election in each electoral district can come from parties, vote groups, and individual voters.
Party lists can only be put up for a vote by the parties themselves. Nominations for individual candidates, as well as for party lists, must be submitted to the district's election registry no later than 6 pm on the 48th day before the election.
This deadline can be shortened by resolution of the parliament. Parties that are not in the state parliament or have not been nominated to the Bundestag from North Rhine-Westphalia in the last electoral period must submit at least signatures from legal voters in support of the party.
For district nominations, both parties as well as non-party potential candidates must submit at least signatures from registered votes in support of their candidacy in the electoral district.
Each voter is only allowed to support a single nomination, and a nomination is only permitted to name a single candidate, whose name must be the same as it is listed on the party list.
Nominations from parties and electoral groups must be decided by secret ballot of their members or by delegates selected likewise by secret ballot; however the state leaderships of the parties have a unique right to appeal the decision of these nominations.
If such an appeal is filed, the process must be repeated to either confirm the candidate or to select a new one.
Through this rule, the leadership of the CDU successfully opposed a candidate in one of the electoral districts of Cologne during the parliamentary elections of The first vote that each voter casts is for a direct candidate to represent one of the electoral districts.
The winner of this vote enters the state parliament regardless of how the second vote for the party list turns out.
Since only candidates from the two biggest parties, the CDU and the SPD , have been selected through the direct first vote. Theoretically, this directly elected member of parliament should represent all the residents of the electoral district, but in practice, their party membership plays a paramount role in their work in parliament.
When a party receives more candidates by direct vote the first vote than they would be entitled to through the party list vote the second vote , the extra candidates are said to occupy overhang seats detailed below.
For the distribution of seats for each party, the second vote is of particular significance. In an effort to balance representation, the second vote is not counted when:.
These seats are distributed to candidates among the winning parties in the order that they were listed in the party list. This means that a party often gets more seats to represent specific electoral districts than they are entitled to based on party list votes, which results in overhang seats.
In this case, the other parties obtain leveling seats , in order to establish a proportional allocation of seats; the size of parliament, therefore, is not fixed, but rather expands in relation to the number of overhang and leveling seats.
In theory, several parties can have overhang seats at the same time, though this has not yet occurred. Of course, this scheme for adding seats can lead to an expansion of parliament to a size larger than is necessary to produce proportional representation.
From until with the exception of the elections , every parliamentary election had overhang seats so that parliament routinely had more representatives than the minimum number necessary.
The left column of the ballot is designated for the first vote, which is for a direct candidate, and the right column is for the second vote, which is for a party list.
The order of the parties depends first on the number of votes achieved by each party in the last state election.
These are followed by parties running for the first time, listed in the order that they registered with the state electoral commission.
Through resignation, loss of eligibility, or death, outgoing members of parliament will be replaced, regardless of whether they were elected by direct mandate or through the lists, by the next person on the party list who has not yet taken office for instance, if ten of eleven people on a party list are sent to parliament, but one of those ten resigns, then the eleventh person who did not get elected will take his place.
For members who were elected directly and do not belong to a party list, a special election is held. For the loss of a seat as a result of the banning of a party, it is necessary to distinguish between representatives who were elected directly from an electoral district, versus those who were elected from the lists.
In the case of a direct mandate, a new election takes place in which the individual who lost his seat is not eligible to run.
Regarding those elected from lists, the representative in question will only be replaced if they were elected as part of an unconstitutional party.
The parliament elected in only had a term of three years. The constitution from then established a four-year term for members of parliament, which was extended to five years in The term for each parliament member begins at the first session of parliament, and a regular parliamentary election must take place within the last three months of the term.
Each new parliament convenes for the first time within 20 days of the election, but not before the end of term for the outgoing parliament.
Parliament can be dissolved by a majority vote of its members, and this occurred for the first time on 14 March The state government has never dissolved parliament since before this could happen, the electorate would have to approve a bill through referendum that the state government had proposed and that the parliament had already rejected.
In all cases, new elections must take place within 60 days of the dissolution of parliament. After the election in , parliament shrank from regular members to , after the electoral districts were reduced from to , and the list-elected members were increased from 50 to Of course, due to overhang and leveling seats, parliament still has over members.
Until , the voting system in North Rhine-Westphalia was quite distinct from both the federal system and those found in the other states of Germany.
While federal elections had already instituted the two vote system discussed above, North Rhine-Westphalia voters only had one vote to cast for the candidate of their choice in their electoral district.
These votes then were also counted for the list of the candidate's political party and were used to divide the seats not apportioned to particular electoral districts.
This disadvantaged certain parties, such as the Left Party with candidates only in districts and the Ecological Democratic Party only in 78 districts , since they could not field candidates in every district, and thus did not have the same number of potential voters for their lists.
The introduction of the second vote in May changed all that. In the state election, which brought to power the 16th Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia, parliament was again made up of five parties.
The SPD won 99 seats, while the CDU managed to pick up This marked the first time in 12 years that the SPD won the largest percentage of votes, and it marked a transition of their minority coalition with the Greens to one with a legislative majority.
The following table details the results:. The first parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia was actually appointed during the British occupation following WWII , and was not replaced by a democratically elected body until Until , the state was a stronghold of the SPD and social democracy , with each President-Minister between and coming from that party.
Under the leadership of Karl Arnold , the CDU lead the government from until the longest period that the CDU has been in power in the state.
They again held the position of President-Minister from until under Franz Meyers as coalition leader, and during the period of SPD rule from until , they were the largest party in parliament during two election periods.
They could not, however, organize a coalition either time. The state parliament elections led for the first time in decades their return to power over the SPD, who nevertheless maintained their domination in the Ruhr.
The CDU suffered heavy losses in the elections of , but remained a strong force in parliament. Because they could not form a majority with the FDP and after the SPD rejected offers of a grand coalition under a CDU Minister-President, the SPD and the Greens formed a minority government under Minister-President Hannelore Kraft SPD , who was elected to the position with support from the Left.
The Greens have the highest percentage of women in parliament, at The leadership of the 16th Parliament is once again led by a woman, namely the newly elected President of Parliament Carina Gödecke, who replaced Eckhard Uhlenberg.
The values embraced by the people of North Rhine-Westphalia has changed in recent decades like no other German region. And like no other region, the state is banking on culture to do its bit to lessen the impact.
The results can be viewed across the country, and especially in the Ruhr. Today, the creative industries employ more people than the mining sector.
Industrial heritage sites have been turned into workplaces for designers, artists and the advertising industry. Every year, the Were it an independent country, it would be a world leader in terms of exports.
The state is also a national leader. Planning to invest in North Rhine-Westphalia? Get assistance from NRW. INVEST, the business promotion agency.
Skip to main content. Home North Rhine-Westphalia. Foto: Tourismus NRW e. Learn more about the land of new opportunity and cultural diversity. Picture: State Government of NRW.
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